Install and configure PostgreSQL 12.6 on OpenBSD 6.8

In this section we will install and configure PostgreSQL 12.6 database server on OpenBSD 6.8.

"PostgreSQL is a powerful, open source object-relational database system with over 30 years of active development that has earned it a strong reputation for reliability, feature robustness, and performance. "

A description and more information about the database server is available on the project's web site, https://www.postgresql.org/.

PostgreSQL is not 100% but largely SQL compliant, with additional features. If you are familiar with MySQL, be aware that database server is much less SQL Compliant, so you may have a short learning curve to "break bad learned habits".

OpenBSD 6.8 has version 12.6 available as a package. You should keep in mind that upgrading between minor versions of PostgreSQL (for example from 12.5 to 12.6) can be done in place, however if you are upgrading between major versions (for example from 12 to 13) then you need to do a complete database dump to an SQL file, upgrade the system to the major version, then re-import the data. You can also export the data to another server, upgrade, and re-import the data after the update.

You should always keep a backup of your database in your system plan.

When you install the server, it will also install the database client.

# doas pkg_add postgresql-server 

postgresql-server-12.6:libxml-2.9.10p2: ok
postgresql-server-12.6:postgresql-client-12.6: ok
useradd: Warning: home directory `/var/postgresql' doesn't exist, and -m was not specified
postgresql-server-12.6: ok
Running tags: ok
The following new rcscripts were installed: /etc/rc.d/postgresql
See rcctl(8) for details.
New and changed readme(s):
	/usr/local/share/doc/pkg-readmes/postgresql-server
    

Read the documentation:

At least two different accounts are involved when working with PostgreSQL:
One is an OpenBSD userid, '_postgresql', which is used as the userid of files
that are part of PostgreSQL.  The other, usually named 'postgres', is not an
OpenBSD userid, i.e. you will not find it in /etc/passwd, but an account
internal to the database system.  The 'postgres' account is called the dba
account (database administrator) and is created when a new database is
initialized using the initdb command.

If you are installing PostgreSQL for the first time, you have to create
a default database first.  In the following example we install a database
in /var/postgresql/data with a dba account 'postgres' and scram-sha-256
authentication. We will be prompted for a password to protect the dba account:

       # su - _postgresql
       $ mkdir /var/postgresql/data
       $ initdb -D /var/postgresql/data -U postgres -A scram-sha-256 -E UTF8 -W

It is strongly advised that you do not work with the postgres dba account
other than creating more users and/or databases or for administrative tasks.
Use the PostgreSQL permission system to make sure that a database is only
accessed by programs/users that have the right to do so.

Please consult the PostgreSQL website for more information, especially when
you are upgrading an existing database installation.

We will not need to modify TCP networking in PostgreSQL config for this project. By default PostgreSQL will listen on 127.0.0.1 port 5432 and if you have IPv6 enabled, ::1 port 5432.

Keep in mind for other projects that the PostgreSQL has many configuration options and it is possible to set up a cluster of servers running on multiple hosts with real-time streaming updates. As a distributed/cluster data it excels over other database servers.

First-time installation of database:
# su - _postgresql
dvi$ mkdir /var/postgresql/data
dvi$ initdb -D /var/postgresql/data -U postgres -A scram-sha-256 -E UTF8 -W
The files belonging to this database system will be owned by user "_postgresql".
This user must also own the server process.

The database cluster will be initialized with locale "C".
The default text search configuration will be set to "english".

Data page checksums are disabled.

Enter new superuser password: 
Enter it again: 

fixing permissions on existing directory /var/postgresql/data ... ok
creating subdirectories ... ok
selecting dynamic shared memory implementation ... posix
selecting default max_connections ... 20
selecting default shared_buffers ... 128MB
selecting default time zone ... UTC
creating configuration files ... ok
running bootstrap script ... ok
performing post-bootstrap initialization ... ok
syncing data to disk ... ok

Success. You can now start the database server using:

    pg_ctl -D /var/postgresql/data -l logfile start

To start the database you can use rcctl. (first exit from user _postgresql)

$ exit
dvi# doas rcctl start postgresql

*If you want to modify the configuration files see /var/postgresql/data/pg_hba.conf and /var/postgresql/data/postgresql.conf

Now we will log into the database server and create our Asterisk user and CDR table. CDR is "Call Detail Record", a log of calls placed and received.

The PostgreSQL client is 'psql'. We log into the superuser account we created in the install step.

# psql -U postgres    
Password for user postgres: 
psql (12.6)
Type "help" for help.

postgres=# 

Now we enter the following commands to create a database and user and give that user full permissions on the database. Make note of the password you supply, as you will need it when you configure Asterisk 16.

Note that each line ends with a semicolon. If you accidentally press 'Enter' without the semicolon, it is OK to type the semicolon on the line by itself and press Enter. If you try to enter another command without the semicolon, it will consider both lines as one command and cause an error.

postgres=# create database asterisk;
CREATE DATABASE
postgres=# create user asterisk with encrypted password 'THEPASSWORD';
CREATE ROLE
postgres=# grant all privileges on database asterisk to asterisk;
GRANT
postgres=# 

Next we will create the CDR table. (You can download the file here).

postgres=# CREATE TABLE cdr ( 
postgres(#         calldate timestamp NOT NULL , 
postgres(#         clid varchar (80) NOT NULL , 
postgres(#         src varchar (80) NOT NULL , 
postgres(#         dst varchar (80) NOT NULL , 
postgres(#         dcontext varchar (80) NOT NULL , 
postgres(#         channel varchar (80) NOT NULL , 
postgres(#         dstchannel varchar (80) NOT NULL , 
postgres(#         lastapp varchar (80) NOT NULL , 
postgres(#         lastdata varchar (80) NOT NULL , 
postgres(#         duration int NOT NULL , 
postgres(#         billsec int NOT NULL , 
postgres(#         disposition varchar (45) NOT NULL , 
postgres(#         amaflags int NOT NULL , 
postgres(#         accountcode varchar (20) NOT NULL , 
postgres(#         uniqueid varchar (150) NOT NULL , 
postgres(#         userfield varchar (255) NOT NULL ,
postgres(#         peeraccount varchar(20) NOT NULL ,
postgres(#         linkedid varchar(150) NOT NULL ,
postgres(#         sequence int NOT NULL
postgres(# );
CREATE TABLE